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Just as the earth is called the 'blue planet', Mars is called the 'Red Planet'. Due to its proximity to the earth and the conditions that are probably tolerable for humans, it is the next target of manned space travel.
Mars is the fourth planet in the solar system and it is only about half the size of the earth.
Reddish iron oxide dust (rust) has spread on its surface and in its atmosphere. Hence Mars will too 'The Red Planet' called - 'The Rusty Planet' would also be appropriate. Its atmosphere is very thin and consists mainly of carbon dioxide. It can hardly store any heat - therefore temperatures of 20 degrees Celsius during the day and -85 degrees Celsius at night occur.
Due to its low mass and density, its gravitational pull is only 38 percent of the earth. For example, instead of 50 kilograms, you would only weigh 19 kilograms on Mars and could jump very far and high!
Mars has like the earth great mountains, valleys and plains. The volcano Olympus Mons is the 21.3 km high highest elevation in the solar system. Mount Everest, the highest mountain on earth, is 'only' about 8.8 kilometers high. Liquid water was recently discovered under a thick layer of ice - is there life?
Mars orbits the sun on one highly elliptical orbit in 687 earth days. The distance to the sun is between 206 and 249 million kilometers.
Mars rotates on its own axis in 24.6 hours - a little slower than Earth. Its axis of rotation is inclined by 25.2 ° - slightly more than that of our earth (23.4 °). Thereby there is Seasons like on earth, however almost twice as long last. Due to the strongly elliptical orbit around the sun, the seasons are of different lengths.
Mars has two small misshapen moons - Phobos and Deimos (22 and 12 km in diameter, respectively)
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