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Medieval Perspectives

collaboratively written by


T

Transcultural entanglements
transcultural phenomena have increased in recent years
the attention of research and be
Network of transcultural entanglements
in all probability also in the next few years the subject of intellectual
scientific debates. As a result of a collaborative Georg Christ, Saskia Dönitz, Daniel G. König,
The present volume sees itself as an act of writing as well as an introduction by Şevket Küçükhüseyin, Margit Mersch, Britta
in the investigation of transcultural entanglement phenomena as well
as an attempt to systematically penetrate this research
Müller-Schauenburg, Ulrike Ritzerfeld,
field from different medieval perspectives. Christian Vogel and Julia Zimmermann
He first deals with development on a theoretical level
and the origins of the transcultural paradigm.
In numerous source studies, he also discusses how transcultural
Entanglement processes in medieval sources differed
Origin and type are named, described and assessed. On
an attempt is made to use the
Terms 'network', 'tissue', 'rhizomatic braid' and 'fusion'
to de fi ne various models of transcultural entanglement and
elaborate based on the sources. In addition, there is also one

Network of transcultural entanglements


source-based preoccupation with reciprocal relationships
between entangling and untangling processes. It flows out
in final reflections on the question of which methodological
Opportunities and risks historically working research
which sees the transcultural paradigm for concrete work
want to use the sources.
By giving the volume the genesis of current methodological discussions
traced and these based on more than fifty short source
analyzes, it is ideally suited for use in
Study and teaching. In addition, he offers through the systematic
Presentation as well as the reflections on theory and practical application
The transcultural approach made numerous suggestions for the
further research discussion.

ISBN: 978-3-86395-277-8 Universitätsverlag Göttingen Universitätsverlag Göttingen


Network of transcultural entanglements
Transcultural links

This work is licensed under a


Creative Commons
Attribution - disclosure under alike
4.0 International license.
published by Universitätsverlag Göttingen 2016
Transcultural
Entanglements
Medieval Perspectives

collaboratively written by

Network transcultural
Entanglements
Georg Christ, Saskia Dönitz, Daniel
G. König, Şevket Küçükhüseyin,
Margit Mersch, Britta Müller-
Schauenburg, Ulrike Ritzerfeld,
Christian Vogel and Julia
Carpenter

Göttingen University Press
2016
Bibliographic information from the German National Library
The German National Library lists this publication in the German
National bibliography; detailed bibliographic data are available on the internet
available.

Contact
Prof. Dr. Daniel King
Heidelberg University
Karl Jaspers Center for Advanced Transcultural Studies
Vossstraße 2, building 4400
69115 Heidelberg
[email protected]

This book is also available as a free online version via the publisher's homepage as well as via
the Göttingen University Catalog (GUK) at the Lower Saxony State and
Göttingen University Library (http://www.sub.uni-goettingen.de) accessible.
The license terms of the online version apply.

Typesetting and layout: Margit Mersch


Cover design: Margo Bargheer
Cover image: © Julia Zimmermann

© 2016 University Press Göttingen


http://univerlag.uni-goettingen.de
ISBN: 978-3-86395-277-8
Table of Contents

Foreword ................................................. ........................................... 7
1 Introduction ................................................ .................................. 11
1.1 At the fair of terms: A panorama of the
Interweaving ................................................. ........................................ 12
1.2 Transcultural integration: a preliminary definition .................... 22
2 ideas on cultures and interdependence ..................................... 25
2.1 Cultures (civilizations) in interaction ........................................... ........ 26
2.1.1 From peoples and empires to east-west migration from
Culture ................................................. ....................................... 28
2.1.2 Style-historical impulses for the formulation
organic cultural theories ................................................ ....... 33
2.1.3 Models of the emergence and decay of cultures ................. 38
2.1.4 Focus on identity formation and conflict of the
Cultures ................................................. ................................... 47
2.2 Conceptualizations of cultural forms of interaction in the
Research................................................. ............................................. 51
2.2.1 Acculturation .............................................. ............................... 53
2.2.2 Inter- and multiculturalism ........................................... ............. 56
2.2.3 Culture transfer .............................................. .............................. 58
2.2.4 Passage .............................................. ........................................ 61
2.2.5 Entanglement, Histoire croisée ........................................... ....... 63
2.2.6 Networks .............................................. .................................... 65
2.2.7 Hybridization .............................................. ............................. 68
2.2.8 Palimpsest .............................................. .................................... 70
2.2.9 Transculturality .............................................. .......................... 72
2.3 Conclusion: From the theoretical basics ad fontes ............................. 77
3 Transcultural integration in the sources ........................ 81
3.1 Designation of entanglement phenomena ..................................... 82
3.1.1 One concept: corruption (fasād) ........................................ ....... 82
3.1.2 Apostrophication: 'Hybrid' offspring (Turcopoli,
Mixobarbaroi and others) ............................................... .................... 84
3.1.3 Entanglement findings: compositions (mhd.
parry, undersnîden) .............................................. .............. 90
3.1.4 Conceptually charged wording: frowned upon
Interaction (cibis consociari gentilium) ................................... 92
3.2 Reflections on entanglement .............................................. ............... 94
3.2.1 Dealing with integration in a meaningful way: Orosius to the
Barbarians ................................................. .................................. 94
3.2.2 Confrontation with the other: Judeo-Christian
Polemics ................................................. ................................... 97
3.2.3 Description of group genesis and adaptation: The
Crusaders seen inside and out .............................. 99
3.2.4 Fiction of Textual Genesis: The Grail Story in Wolfram
from Eschenbach ................................................ ...................... 103
3.2.5 Creation of a literary figure: the piebald skin
of Feirefiz ................................................ ............................. 105
3.2.6 Profitable Contacts: Select a trading list
Flanders ................................................. ................................ 106
3.2.7 Establishing identity through the interweaving of East and West:
The Venice case ............................................... ..................... 108
3.2.8 Relative religious boundaries: A Georgian / Christian
Turkish / Muslim dispute ............................ 110
3.2.9 Mixed religions as part of salvation history: Palamas'
Travel report ................................................. ........................... 112
3.2.10 Decision for Social Peace: The Synod of
Nicosia ................................................. .................................. 115
3.2.11 Fear for social peace: A decree from Candia ........ 117
3.2.12 Coping with defense: Felix Fabri on the
Latin-Greek clergy in Cyprus .............................. 119
3.3 Materialized entanglements and their interpretation .............................. 122
3.3.1 Transreligious object use: scandal about a
'Muslim' tray at the court of Michael VIII. ................... 124
3.3.2 Cultural diversity as a characteristic of bad rule:
Illustrations in the 'Liber ad honorem Augusti' ....................... 130
3.3.3 Between pittura greca and pittura latina: transcultural
Entanglements in Cretan Painting .............................. 133
3.3.4 Phenomenon or Interpretation? The Acre Portal in Cairo. 135
3.4 Conclusion: from designation to interpretation ..................................... 137
4 integration models ................................................ ............ 141
4.1 Premises of integration .............................................. .................. 141
4.1.1 Spaces of relationships: geographical, temporal, social ................... 142
4.1.2 Vectors: Movement in Force Fields ..................................... 144
4.1.3 Agency: The effectiveness of actors and agents ... 145
4.1.4 Encounter: automatisms versus process openness .............. 150
4.1.5 Exchange: give and take .......................................... .... 151
4.1.6 Models: networks, tissues, rhizomatic braids ........ 152
4.2 Network model ............................................... ................................ 153
4.2.1 Source poverty and ideology: the Jewish long-distance traders of the
Rāḏāniyya ................................................. .............................. 154
4.2.2 Reconstruction in the face of abundance of sources: The
veneto-mediterranean network .............................................. ... 156
4.2.3 Organizational structures and multiple networking: The
Cistercians ................................................. ........................... 159
4.2.4 Different levels of the network: Templars and
Johanniter ................................................. ............................... 162
4.2.5 “He knew how to make friends”: Roger de Flor
and the Catalan Company ............................................. 164
4.2.6 Model application: for the reconstruction of networks ...... 166
4.3 Model fabric / texture (textura) .......................................... .............. 167
4.3.1 Textures in metal: luxury goods of the Mamluk tradition
at Mediterranean courts in the 14th century ............................. 168
4.3.2 Cross-religious category formation and topic
Sample variations: book directories .............................. 170
4.3.3 Bilingual poetry: 'De Heinrico' ........................................ 173
4.3.4 Judaeo-Greek texts: Hebrew script - Greek
Language ................................................. ................................... 174
4.3.5 The Arabic-Romance ḫarǧa: Two hierarchized
Languages ​​- one script .............................................. ............. 177
4.3.6 Model application: For the reconstruction of
Fabrics / textures ............................................... ................... 180
4.4 Rhizomatic braid model .............................................. .......... 183
4.4.1 Unorganized dissemination in pictures and text: The mounted one
Dragon fighter ................................................. ..................... 185
4.4.2 Web of visual concepts: wandering
Moldings in the Mediterranean area ............................................... 188
4.4.3 Signs of underground entanglements: Local
Materializations in the Levant .......................................... 192
4.4.4 Intertwined Aesthetic Experiences: Venetian
Spoils of war for the sultan .............................................. ........ 195
4.4.5 Product of Unorganized Expansion? The Berber enclave
Fraxinetum ................................................. ............................. 197
4.4.6 Complexity of commercial relationships: Venetians im
late medieval Alexandria ............................................ 203
4.4.7 Model application: For the reconstruction of rhizomatic
Braids ................................................. ............................... 205
4.5 Mergers as a result of entanglements? ................................................. 208
4.5.1 Mergers in metal: luxury goods in Mamluk tradition
Europe in the 15th / 16th Century ............................................... 209
4.5.2 Syncretism / fusion of cult elements: Christ Victor,
Maria Regina ................................................ .......................... 211
4.5.3 Ethnogenesis: The Goths in Thrace ...................................... 213
4.5.4 Integration and its prerequisites: Simeon the Armenians ... 216
4.5.5 Perfection through fusion: the Christian empire
in the 'Younger Titurel' ............................................. ................ 217
4.5.6 Mergers as an entanglement process and outcome .................. 219
4.6 Conclusion: From Encounter to Fusion? .............................................. 220
5 Unbundling as part of entanglement processes ............. 223
5.1 (Re) structuring - the ordering dimension of unbundling ..... 225
5.1.1 Explanation of difference: diversification of humanity ... 226
5.1.2 Distinguishing identity: the Franconian Troy
Myth ................................................. .................................. 233
5.1.3 Group label in the picture: depictions of hell and
Manorial illustrations ................................................. ....... 236
5.1.4 Unio in divisione: The 'Ordinatio imperii' of Ludwig des
Pious ................................................. ............................... 238
5.1.5 Requirement for physical distance: Jewish and
Christian criticism of the shared bathroom ................................ 243
5.1.6 Segregation policy: fears of assimilation in the east
Mediterranean Sea ................................................. ............................. 246
5.1.7 Controlled contacts: For the integration of
Hanseatic merchants in Bruges ............................................... ..... 249
5.2 Destructuring - the dissolving dimension of unbundling ....... 251
5.2.1 Measures in and on the property: From destruction to
Defamation to appreciation ........................................... 251
5.2.2 Ritualized demarcation: the Old Saxon baptismal vow ... 254
5.2.3 Staging a dissolution: a Christian-pagan one
Army in the 'Younger Titurel' ............................................ ......... 256
5.2.4 Expulsion: Edict to expel Muslims
Castile ................................................. ................................ 258
5.2.5 Reflected disintegration: thoughts on the disintegration of the
Byzantine Empire ................................................ ............ 260
5.3 Conclusion: intertwining of entanglement and unbundling ............ 264
6 Between formula and fuzzy - possibilities and
Limits of complexity reduction .................................... 271
6.1 From the source to the meta-level .......................................... ............... 271
6.2 Formalization ................................................ .................................... 272
6.3 Modeling with graphic representation ......................................... 274
6.4 Narrative modeling ............................................... .................... 285
6.5 Balance sheet: loss and profit statements ........................................... 289
7 Conclusion ................................................ ......................................... 293
Methodological Decalogue ................................................ ................ 301
English Summary ................................................ ....................... 305
Transcultural Entanglement. Medievalist Perspectives .............................. 305
Bibliography ................................................. .............................. 311
Swell ................................................. .................................................. .... 311
Scientific literature ................................................ ........................ 317
Index ................................................. ........................................... 361
Names of persons and places .............................................. ............................. 361
Pictures ................................................. ............................... 375
List of figures ................................................. .............................. 375
Preface

This study does not represent an individual, i.e. ultimately monoperspective


Synthesis achievement. Rather, it is the result of a collaborative
Nine mediaevalists from the fields of German studies, business
historical studies, Islamic studies, Jewish studies, art and architecture
turistic, economic and legal, theology and philosophy history. Special
The main focus of the study is on dealing with the sources,
the challenges of their interpretation and the development of a
capable and operationalizable terminology of your description in view
on the subject.
The framework for this collaborative writing act was provided by a German
research community with a great understanding of the way we work
funded 'network'. It was made up of a core of former members
workers of the DFG Priority Program 1173 'Integration and Des-
integration of cultures in the European Middle Ages ‘as well as other interests
sated - in alphabetical order: Georg Christ, Saskia Dönitz, Daniel G.
König, Şevket Küçükhüseyin, Margit Mersch, Britta Müller-Schauenburg, Ulri-
ke Ritzerfeld, Christian Vogel and Julia Zimmermann.
Between March 2012 and March 2016, a total of nine work
in each case flanked by intensive overhauls carried out in digital exchange.
preparation phases, the concept and structure of the study. The
Text was formulated in large parts together as well as in its entirety
and discussed and edited in its individual parts.
At the first working meeting, examples of sources were presented
and discussed, which the individual network members see as suitable training
starting point for dealing with the topic of 'transcultural interdependence
‘appeared. During the second meeting, the dispute arose
with research concepts in the foreground that are in one way or another
Wise men try to conceptually grasp entanglement phenomena. On this
8 Foreword

A preliminary structure was drawn up as a basis, which will then be used during the
third meeting was discussed in detail. From these considerations
drafts of the first three chapters were created, which deal with the spectrum
interwoven terms, the previous theoretical penetration of the
Topic as well as the precipitation of interweaving phenomena in the source
len concerned. Their discussion at the fourth working meeting provided the basis for
an intensive examination of the question of how transcultural interdependencies
management processes are to be represented in models. As part of the fifth working
At the meeting, it became clear that dealing with transcultural associations
entanglement phenomena would hardly be possible without an understanding of that
To develop interlocking of entanglement and unbundling processes. With
the goal of a more intensive preoccupation with unbundling phenomena
Another review of the source material followed. Then some
Theses on the interaction of both processes put forward on the sixth
and the seventh working meeting were further developed. Which have already been
edited chapters were given to individual network members for editing
practice and then merged into a first manuscript. Against them
Any changes made could be vetoed within a specified timeframe.
will be laid. The manuscript was given to two external 'reviewers' who
when guests were invited to the eighth working meeting. In response to the criticism
and the subsequent discussion, the texts for editing were new
distributed and a second, revised manuscript prepared. On the ninth
Working meeting, the text was commented on by two network members,
then discussed again in detail, the details changed together
and finally edited. At the end of this phase the manuscript for
prepared the print.
Against the background of a textual genesis, the partly large interdisciplinary
was exposed to basic comprehension challenges is the question of
Except for authorship difficult to answer: drafts for frameworks
texts, but above all the individual case studies, mostly come from a
the. They are, of course, not from the original authors, within the framework of
Discussions and revisions often, in some cases quite massive
siv, has been changed. Despite various subject-specific issues,
hagen from all members of the network quite a few compromises
readiness required, even if there is certainly not a consensus in every case
was strived for across the board. Despite all individual achievements, the
The entire text is ultimately only the result of intensive joint work on
be seen. The study as a whole is therefore to be published under the name of
work or all those involved. Its individual components, in turn, are - in
hierarchical order - marked with the name of those who have the
Have borne the brunt of their creation. In this way we have
seeks, the individual need for validity and the publication requirements
Foreword 9

of the academic job market as well as the individual performance and the
to take common work equally into account.
In the work process itself, the regulation of the author's question was largely ir-
relevant. The accepted and aspired goal was both the format of a
to break through individually shaped monolithic monograph as well
to avoid the often eclectic character of an anthology. In addition
it was about the methodological challenge, an alternative to the linear one
develop historical narrative. That goes as inevitable, but here
An explicitly desired effect is associated with the fact that the text offers open ends that do not
are forcibly connected, but potential alternatives in the statements and
Emphasize interpretations. A text is therefore put up for discussion that
takes into account the different perspectives of its authors, in this way the
- in some cases vehemently conducted - depicts internal discussions, therefore also
Permits contradictions and yet is conceived as an organic whole.
The book is intended to provide a compact introduction to the topic of 'trans-
cultural interweaving ‘including its integral 'opposite' - the disentangling
tung - give. The study also pursues the goal of thematic and
perspective diversity stimulating future research and the broader
re thinking about this issue to work.
Our access is interdisciplinary within the framework of the network represented
th subjects and focused on medieval topics. He builds - in part
also across epochs - on source material that comes from a room
which one could heuristically call 'Euro-Mediterranean'. These
Determination of space allows perspectives beyond national or culturalistic
scher (e.g. 'Christian-Occidental', 'Byzantine' or 'Islamic')
Adopt schemes. However, it should not be about any (ver
to work out my) specificities of a Euro-Mediterranean area, but
through the use of source material from this wide area
to gain an understanding of the mechanisms of transcultural integration. There
intend our theoretical developed on Medieval material
Considerations no holistic or even universalistic transculturality
Theory. We hope, however, that our findings are also useful for scientists
of interest that come from other scientific traditions
or deal with other times and spaces.
It is thanks to several that this book was able to come into being:
Organizationally prepared by Britta Müller-Schauenburg, the university
school Sankt-Georgen in Frankfurt am Main held several working meetings
Temporary home in a pleasant atmosphere. For the friendly
We would also like to warmly welcome you to the St. Ursula Education Center in Erfurt
thank you. Kai Weide gave us indispensable help in setting up a data
bank, which was generously donated by the University of Kassel with the emergency
agile server space was considered. Many thanks also go to Jan-Hendryk de
10 Foreword

Boer and Walter Pohl, who read the unfinished text in its entirety, on the
commented on the eighth working meeting and thus once again a critical course
posed. Finally, we would like to un-
Thank you very much for your delivery as well as your flexible and flexible approach
accommodating handling of the funding instrument 'network' this
Made the undertaking possible in the first place.
(Georg Christ, Saskia Dönitz, Daniel G. König, Şevket Küçükhüseyin, Margit
Mersch, Britta Müller-Schauenburg, Ulrike Ritzerfeld, Christian Vogel and
Julia Zimmermann)
1 Introduction

The present study was created out of the need to
approach a topic that is relevant in numerous areas of the
Humanities and social sciences have received great attention for several years
and will probably continue to pay attention to it
will be. It is used here under the umbrella term of 'transcultural interdependence
tung ‘treated.
The scientific consideration of this topic is based on the premise
on that 'cultures' as monolithic, immutable entities that act as such
Interact with each other 'interculturally' or 'multicultural' next to each other
stand, do not exist at all. Rather, advocates of this premise go
from the fact that 'cultures' are situational, i.e. historically determined self-
and external attributions, which - depending on the position of the viewer in
a complex social constellation - always new and new
can be defined with a multitude of variants. They are diverse, flexible and changeable.
The effectiveness of such cultural constructions is thus not in
Asked a question. However, if cultures are treated as situational constructs, then
They no longer refer to an empirically verifiable 'reality', but become
to a part of the human imagination, to one - in its different
adorned and conscious use, which is also a sensible - order category.
This should initially serve to explain the complexity of multiple human genes
to make societies understandable. But it can also be used to create boundaries
zen, are used for demarcation and exclusion and thus create trenches that
On closer inspection it turns out to be not so categorical and insurmountable
show how they - often with clear programmatic ulterior motives -
being represented.
The breaking up of the entity 'culture' through the concept of 'trans-
cultural ‘, however, raises many questions, which despite an almost unmanageable
abundance of publications from various specialist areas and an over-borne
12 Introduction

the new terminology that is still in flux is by no means
seem peacefully resolved. It is still unclear how different actors
Elements, worlds of imagination and ideas actually converge
are to be defined if they are denied a 'cultural' classification. Dar-
Beyond that, the abundance of the individual interaction mechanisms and their
Mention is so large that an overview of this wealth of variants is necessary.
Traditional things have been rejected without a precise and comprehensive
Commonly understandable specialist vocabulary as well as a finer, more general one
accepted modeling of that transcultural interlocking in his
whole variety would have been developed.
The aim of the present study is therefore to provide an introduction to the
named complex of topics, its research history, the diversity of its
Terminologies and models, but also the possibilities and limits of his
To give access.
(Plenum)

1.1 At the fair of terms: a panorama


the entanglement
Today it is taken for granted that individuals and societies
through interdependencies of various kinds, through different
hidden and open, indirect and direct relationships with each other
are bound. The catchphrase of globalization leaves these experiences as
a qualitatively new development of modernity (or postmodernism) appear.
Cultural entanglement and disentanglement processes are of course central issues.
names of human history.
Globalization in the narrower sense of the word only becomes effective when it is included
of all continents in the social contact and switching networks
spoke, but other epochs also have extremely complex connec-
structures over long distances and across political and cultural boundaries
zen away. Cultural entanglement and unbundling processes seem
consequently to be an integral part of human societies in which
there are always phases of particular densification in regional variations
and proliferation of contacts as well as periods of breakdown
supraregional connectivity.1 Think in this context

1
The concept of connectivity is mainly reflected in the discussions of the media
sciences and cultural studies on processes of current globalization that follow
Tomlinson, Globalization (1999), pp. 1–2, is understood as “the rapidly unfolding and always
denser network of connectivities and interdependencies that the modern social
Characterize life ".
Introduction 13

about the elaborate, far-reaching exchange processes in Europe


Bronze Age, of the violence and fragmentation of
Contact zones at the turn of the Iron Age, the increase in economic
and cultural exchange processes, of all things, in times of warlike
Clashes in the Mediterranean region of the crusade period or to the
current discussions on the integration of refugees in Europe.
After many historians of the
19th century, for example in the context of economic history, complex
have shown interweaving phenomena in large litters, 2 take the media-
vist disciplines at the beginning of the 21st century interdependencies stronger
in terms of multidirectional relationships. In doing so, they became
one probably motivated by experiences of globalization. To have another
they after reception of related theories and ventilation from others
Disciplines discovered the interdependence issue as a worthwhile approach.
The shift in focus to transcultural relationships brings it along
that the process-like nature of social phenomena and relationships
is being discussed intensively again today.3 However, the description
Exercise of dynamic complexity is often a major challenge for the
linguistic expression for multidimensional structures
and processes offer inadequate terminology.
In short: entanglement phenomena are difficult to grasp conceptually. This
even a cursory look at the different disciplines
discurses.4 Inconsistent and with a wide range of variations, there is a multitude
operated by terms which - partly synonymous, partly with emphasis-
Practice of certain nuances, sometimes with very different descriptions
Process flows - try to describe entanglement phenomena. To get out
to select those terms from an unmistakable conglomeration, which
as operationalizable, as categories, as metaphorical approximations or
possibly also as epistemological models for the analysis of transcultural
weaving phenomena should first and foremost be a cursory insight into them
Diversity can be granted.
First of all, it should be noted that the range of terms available through
depends on the language in which a specific specialist discourse takes place.
Terms of Greek or Latin origin can at least be found in the
use most Western European languages: terms such as acculturation, assi-
milation, hybridization, transculturality etc. are in their exact scientific

2
See, for example, Ranke, Stories (1824); Heyd, Levant trade (1879).
3
In some areas, current research lags behind even earlier considerations. The
Intertwining of Roman, Islamic, Latin and Greek legal systems
z. B. hardly studied since the 1930s, see the remarks by Crone, Law (1987),
Pp. 1-17; Emilia, Law (1953).
4
See Burke, Hybridity (2009), pp. 34–65, under the heading “Varieties of terminology”.
14 Introduction

social definition controversial. But they are in English, French,


Italian, Portuguese, Swedish, Spanish etc. alike, mostly too
with the same definition problems and semantic exaggerations, usable.
The situation is different with terms that relate to a specific (knowledge
societal) language or speaker group. The French term
métissage and the English term hybridity describe at first
Look a similar, if not identical, phenomenon. In their historical
However, they differ markedly when used: During métissage
was initially applied to the Caribbean area and thus a colo-
nial context in which the mixing of 'races' plays a role
played, is the English term hybridity after biological beginnings in one
explicit positive term of postcolonial theory has been reinterpreted and harbors
due to its further use, for example in technology (e.g. hybrid engine),
new contexts of meaning. 5 'entanglement', on the other hand, is the central concept of
present study, is not necessarily considered to be synonymous translation
of the more common English term entanglement. 6 Noch
it is more difficult to translate
terms used in the world of economics in languages ​​that are associated with this sphere in
rem measure are in contact. This is how the much-discussed German
handle of 'culture transfer' as a cultural transfer or transfer
culturel translated into English or French. In contemporary arabic
scientific discourse, to name just one example, seems to be one
lack of an exact term equivalent associated with similar discourses,
not least because cultural exchange processes are currently not in
discussed in the same way as in Germany, France or im
anglophone area. When trying to translate 'cultural transfer' into Arabic
the non-native speaker cannot use an established language
take over all the connotations of the 'western' research discourse
transported, but is confronted with a number of ambiguous terms
faced. These can all be translated as 'transfer'
however in different directions and thus necessitate further differences
decoration. The problem is deciding whether to 'transfer' in the sense of
'Transport' and 'relocation' (naql), in the sense of 'moving' (intiqāl), 'deportation'
tion 'or' emigration '(tarḥīl),' mediation '(iḥāla) or in the sense of' trans-
formative transposition ‘(taḥwīl) the western research concept 'culture
turtransfer ‘comes closest. It should also be taken into account that one is
when translating the attribute 'cultural' either for the adjective ṯaqāfī
must decide (culturally) or ḥaḍārī (civilizational), a distinction,

5
Dakhlia, Métis (2012); Burkhardt / Mersch / Ritzerfeld / Schröder, hybridization (2011); Burke,
Hybridity (2009).
6
Krämer, Comment (2012), p. 187.
Introduction 15

which are also available in European languages, including in German, as is well known, not


is quite unproblematic.7 If one now turns to Arabic terms, the
Could describe phenomena of transcultural interdependence, so will
It is clear that other topics are discussed in the Arabic research literature
and other priorities are set. The term tabādul ṯ aqāfī ('against-
mutual cultural exchange ‘) is quite common, but implicit
not the same intensity of cultural interlocking as the concept of
'Transcultural integration'. In the term tarābuṭ ('mutual connection
and establishing a connection ‘) one could, however, use a fairly exact one
Identify equivalent to 'entanglement'. 8 This also applies to the term taṯāquf
('Mutual acculturation'), which actually has no problem with the concept of
'Transculturation' could be equated.9 However, if one resorts to the
Definition of an Arabic-Arabic dictionary available online back,
so the question arises to what extent are really the same in the last-mentioned term
Associations resonate as they are in the western research discourse
Paradigm of transculturation. The term taṯāquf is used here on the verb
taṯāqafa returned. This denotes processes in which [1] an actor
culturally influences the masses thanks to a gain in authority, [2] become two
Actors enrich each other culturally through exchange, [3] a group
is in conflict or two actors are mutually sharp in mind
and seek to outdo education.10 In literature, on the other hand, the
Term i.a. used as part of a globalization discourse in which it is about
the conceptual hegemony of the West goes11, but above all is also discussed,
to what extent a cultural identity defined as Arabic and Islamic through
globalization and hegemonic cultural powers are threatened.12 A superficial
elaborate examination of the semantic spectrum of this Arabic
The term initially implies that it - apparently different from its 'western'
equivalent 'transculturation' - not primarily to (often positive
connotated) description of the creative fusion of different cultural
Elements as a consequence of the activities of cross-border commuters, cultural media
ators etc. is used. Rather, it seems to be part of a discourse in
which is primarily about dealing with existing power asymmetries
metrics and the resulting cultural identity conflicts. It would be

7
See Huntington, Clash (1996), pp. 41-44.
8
See Ġalyūn, ṯaqāfa (2002), p. 16; al-Aẓm, al-ʿawlama (2002), p. 79.
9
See the anthropologically based Arabic definition in Ġalyūn, ṯaqāfa (2002), pp. 44–45.
10
http://www.almaany.com/ar/dict/ar-ar/ ﺗﺜﺎﻗﻒ / (11.11.2015), in it: “[1] taṯāquf al-šaḫṣ: innahu
yataʿālā wa-yataṯāqaf ʿalā l-ǧamāhīr ”,“ [2] taṯāquf al-šaḫṣān: tabādalā al-ṯaqāfa: amr yadull ʿalā
taṯāquf ḥaḍārī ”,“ [3] taṯāqafa al-qawm: taḫaṣamū, taqātalū; taṯāqafa al-šaḫṣān: taġālabā fī l-
mahāra wa-l-ṯaqāfa ”.
11
Ḥanafī, al-ʿawlama (22002), pp. 11-12, 22.
12
Ġalyūn, ṯaqāfa, pp. 44–45.
16 Introduction

scientifically not clean to deduce from these selective observations,


Arabic-speaking intellectuals would only be synthesizing cultural phenomena
judge negatively. A deeper engagement with contemporary
Arabic scholarly prose from topics beyond globalization