How does neuroscience explain invariance
Concepts, language and thinking
Since the early experiments of C.L. Hull or N. Oh, it's clear: Concepts are classifications of object sets based on common characteristics. They are like orientation points in the flow of human thought; they are the invariant properties of the classified sets. In human memory these are associated with meaningful sound formations, the phonemes of words. Mutual activations are possible: Words can activate the associated set of features and bring them to mind - just as the features of a term can activate the word. In certain forms of disease, this interaction is disturbed: Aphasic patients can describe the set of features belonging to a term, but they cannot find the word, and vice versa (aphasia). One can imagine the selection effect of such a conceptual structure as the light source of a spotlight: it is directed from memory through the eyes onto the environment, illuminates a well-defined set of objects there and filters out the contents of the activated concept by making the classified visible : Trees, houses, people, children; Events such as weddings, funerals, car accidents, etc. You can see from these examples that there are different types of terms: Object termswhose characteristics define sets of objects such as trees, houses, etc.; Event terms, which are often named by a verb like buy, teach. Conceptual sequences of events can be translated into word sequences when they become a verbally conveyed message. These interrelationships between conceptually determined sequences of events and the word sequences that represent them establish the possible connections between language and thought. The knowledge of structural relations between concepts led to consider such memory ties as propositions in the logical sense; the verb as a (logical) predicate P and the object concepts as arguments (a, b, c, ...), which then lead to configurations of the type P.(ABC...) leads, e.g. giving (Hans, Buch, Sabine). The set of arguments determines the arity of the predicate. As part of the artificial intelligence Such representations have been used to capture processes of language generation from the organization of conceptual knowledge in the model. The reproduction of human thought in language is only possible in a very disarmed manner. That new knowledge can also arise in the interactions between language and thinking has been shown in psychology, among other things, by the method of thinking aloud. It has been used extensively in research into productive thinking, especially in connection with the analysis of problem-solving processes.
Problem-solving processes and productive thinking
In psychology, very different approaches to the investigation of productive and creative thinking have been chosen. Often the method of the thinking out loud used. A newer method is focused on the way of making decisions in complex problem situations. These situations are not fully comprehensible, such as the economic organization of a city with many consequences of the decisions or the administration of a large area in Africa with consequences for the water supply etc. The decisions of the test subjects are entered as computer commands into the complex networked situation structure, the consequences are registered and attempted to improve or correct them in subsequent decisions. Characteristic of complex human problem-solving behavior is the splitting of a path to the goal and the linking of the partial results to the final solution. In certain critical solution phases there is a kind of tilting of the problem situation, restructuring (as Aha experience or experienced sudden insight), which can initiate a quick solution (see additional information).
Lit .:Anderson, J.R.: Cognitive Psychology. Heidelberg 1988. Dörner, D. (et al.): Lohausen - On dealing with indeterminacy and complexity. Bern 1983. Duncker, K..: On the psychology of productive thinking. Berlin 1963. Flugel, J.C.: Problems and results of psychology. Stuttgart 1953. Klix, F..: The nature of the mind. Hogrefe Verlag, Göttingen 1992. Klix, F..: Conceptual knowledge - episodic knowledge. In: Klix, F. and Spada, H .: Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Vol. 6 Wissen, Göttingen 1997. Wertheimer, M..: About final processes in productive thinking. Berlin 1920.
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