What are 80 30g codeine pills worth

Codeine

Codeine is used to treat dry coughs or pain. The active ingredient belongs to the opioids.

application

The pain reliever and antitussive agent codeine helps against pain and unproductive, dry cough. Codeine can also be combined with paracetamol to treat pain. It is misused as a euphoric and dampening intoxicant.

Mechanism of action

Codeine is a phenanthrene alkaloid that used to be extracted from opium poppies. Depending on the dose, it has a central depressant, analgesic, antitussive, calming and sometimes euphoric effect. Like all opiates, the active ingredient binds to supraspinal opioid receptors and thus inhibits the cough center in the brain stem. The use of codeine is not without controversy - some scientific publications even question its cough suppressant effect. Compared to other opioids, the affinity of codeine for the opiate receptors is low. Part of its effectiveness is attributable to the codeine metabolite, morphine.

Pharmacokinetics

After oral administration, codeine is rapidly absorbed. The maximum plasma concentration is reached after about an hour. The active ingredient is metabolized in the liver and partially broken down into morphine. About 90% of the excretion takes place renally in the form of the metabolites; about 10% of the codeine ingested passes through the kidneys unchanged. It takes three to five hours after ingestion for the half-life to be reached in adults - longer in older people. Codeine doesn't work as well in about 7% of the population; they are considered to be slow metabolisers. Almost as many people metabolize the active ingredient very quickly - taking codeine is contraindicated for them.

dosage

Codeine is available in various dosage forms; the active ingredient is available in the form of tablets, capsules, lozenges, coated tablets, effervescent tablets, drops, syrup or suppositories. Depending on the indication and dosage form, different dosages are recommended - for dry coughs, the dose should be adjusted depending on the frequency and strength of the cough. The last intake is in the evening before going to bed in order to dampen coughing at night for an undisturbed sleep. We recommend 15–44 mg codeine every six to eight hours, in individual cases up to 100 mg. It is important that codeine should only be taken in the lowest effective dose and only for as short a time as possible. The maximum daily dose of 200 mg should not be exceeded. Adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age are only allowed to take codeine if their respiratory function is not impaired. The active ingredient is contraindicated for children under 12 years of age.

Overdose

In the event of an overdose of codeine, ventilation with oxygen may be necessary. The vital parameters should be monitored for 24 hours, intensive medical measures may be necessary. The administration of an opiate antagonist, such as the active ingredient naloxone, can help and should be repeated at high doses.

Side effects

Like all drugs, drugs containing codeine can have undesirable effects. The most important ones concern the depressant properties of the active ingredient: drugs that belong to the opioids can make you tired and drowsy. Nausea can occur, especially at the beginning of the treatment. With single doses of more than 60 mg, the muscle tone of the smooth muscles can be increased. Sensitive patients can suffer from impairment of visuomotor coordination and visual performance. If the lung function is impaired, pulmonary edema can develop when taking codeine. Codeine can trigger euphoria during therapy.

The side effects are listed below according to their frequency.

Very often:

  • Nausea and vomiting (especially at the beginning of therapy)
  • Constipation.

Often:

  • a mild headache
  • slight drowsiness.

Occasionally:

  • sleep disorders
  • shortness of breath
  • Dry mouth
  • Pruritus
  • urticarial rash.

Rare:

  • severe allergic reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

Side effects of unknown frequency:

  • Mood swings
  • Hypotension
  • Respiratory depression
  • Pancreatitis
  • Rash.

Interactions

It is important that codeine is not combined with other central depressant active ingredients (sedatives, antidepressants, neuroleptics, sleeping pills, alcohol) - otherwise the effect is intensified. At the same time, no MAO inhibitors or expectorants should be taken. The effect of painkillers is increased by taking codeine as well. The following substances interact with codeine:

Important: The consumption of alcohol should be avoided while taking codeine.

Contraindication

Medicines containing codeine must not be taken if:

  • Hypersensitivity to the active substance or any component of the drug
  • Respiratory failure
  • acute respiratory depression
  • pneumonia
  • acute asthma attack
  • coma
  • in children under 12 years of age
  • approaching birth
  • threatened premature birth
  • deep unconsciousness
  • Patients with the CYP2D6 phenotype (ultrafast metabolisers).

Pregnancy / lactation

In the first three months of pregnancy, taking codeine could possibly lead to malformations, including the respiratory tract of the fetus. For this reason, codeine may only be taken during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, after careful risk-benefit assessment and strict indications. It is important to note, among other things, that the fetus could become dependent on opioids. If the birth is about to begin or a premature birth is imminent, the intake of codeine is contraindicated because the active ingredient can lead to respiratory depression in the newborn after crossing the placental barrier.

Codeine must not be taken during breastfeeding, as there is a risk, especially with ultrafast metabolisers, that the active ingredient will pass into breast milk in higher concentrations. In the worst case, this can be fatal for the infant.

Ability to drive

Because codeine has a depressant effect, responsiveness may be impaired after ingestion. It is therefore not advisable to drive and operate machines during therapy with codeine.

Further details on this active ingredient can be found in the relevant technical information.