Does bad handwriting affect memorization?
Psychiatry, Psychosomatics & Psychotherapy
Signs and disorders of reading and spelling disorder (dyslexia)
A reading-spelling disorder can only be clearly diagnosed in the course of the second grade, since the developmental courses in reading and writing are still very different during the first months of the written language acquisition and difficulties do not necessarily indicate the existence of dyslexia. However, possible signs, especially limited phonological awareness, are often already recognizable in preschool age, e.g. through a late start to language, problems with differentiating sounds and syllables and finding rhyming words. In addition, many affected children have a low auditory memory capacity; they are usually difficult to remember verbal instructions or melodies.
It is extremely difficult for children with reading and spelling disorders to learn to read. They read very hesitantly, often indistinctly, they leave out words, parts of words or letters, add some at random or twist and swap them. In the higher classes, their reading speed is still greatly slowed down. This problem is evident in all school subjects, including foreign language learning. Children with dyslexia have poor reading comprehension, i. H. they cannot reproduce the meaning of what has been read and are difficult to put into context. This problem is the decisive obstacle, because it makes the acquisition of knowledge and access to important school and professional qualifications more difficult. They can usually not repeat longer words exactly, and memorizing poems is often difficult.
When (spelling) writing, the particularly high number of errors is noticeable without a typical error pattern The number of errors in dictations and when copying texts is very high, not only in terms of spelling, but also in terms of grammar and punctuation. Most of the time, children with a spelling disorder are not interested in writing and actively avoid the need to write.
A reading and spelling disorder is noticeable in almost all areas of school. Reading is not only important for German, but also for other subjects such as local studies and general knowledge, history, biology, foreign languages and even for word problems in mathematics. If a child needs a lot of time to grasp the content of a text or a question, the result of the task processing is often incorrect, even if the child could have cognitively solved the task well. In addition, children with dyslexia cannot concentrate for as long and become restless faster than many classmates because of the great effort they have to put into reading and writing. Individual federal states have created a disadvantage compensation and grade protection for the school support of children with dyslexia (in some federal states children with reading and writing difficulties are spoken of). The compensation for disadvantages provides that the children receive specific help and support in the area of reading and spelling in class and, above all, in assessing their performance. For example, time surcharges are granted for completing tasks that require reading. The main purpose of the grade protection is to relieve the emotional burden on students with dyslexia, whose reading and spelling skills are not counted if they are less than sufficient.
Technical support: Prof. Dr. med. Gerd Schulte-Körne, Munich (DGKJP)
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