Which element has no elementary particles
|Lots of gold atoms: gold coin||1 gold atom|
|Surname||Abbreviation (charge)||place||Rest mass|
|proton||p+||Atomic nucleus||1,6724 × 10−24 G|
|neutron||n (none)||Atomic nucleus||1,6748 × 10−24 G|
|electron||e−||Atomic shell||9,109 × 10−28 G|
In the periodic table, the elementary atoms are arranged in ascending order according to the number of protons in their atoms.
1 hydrogen atom has 1 proton (hydrogen: atomic number 1)
1 helium atom has 2 protons (helium: atomic number 2)
1 lithium atom has 3 protons (lithium: atomic number 3)
A carbon atom has 6 protons and 6 neutrons in the atomic nucleus and 6 electrons in the atomic shell. The number of nucleons is 12. The number of nucleons is often written over the number of protons to the left of the individual element symbol. This notation is by no means recommended for the periodic table, because otherwise the number of nucleons can be confused with the relative atomic mass.
|The number on the top left, the Mass number or Nucleon number indicates how many nucleons are contained in an atom. |
The number at the bottom left also indicates the Atomic number, the Atomic number, the Proton number and the Electron count at.
The elementary atoms in the periodic table are arranged with increasing atomic number from left to right in several periods. Since the atomic number corresponds to the number of protons and the number of electrons, one can also say that the elementary atoms are arranged with an increasing number of protons or electrons.
The theories about the individual atomic ideas are detailed in the portraits of the respective researchers or in the linked terms.
|around 400 BC,|
"Atomos" is seen by Democritus as a universal, philosophical principle, man as "A cosmos on a small scale".
|The "Substances simple" sees Lavoisier as "Éléments" (Element) or "Principes" (Urranfang), they do not appear visibly, but act as principles in the structure of the body.|
|Each element consists of atoms of the same type, den "Last particle"that are in a relative weight to each other.|
J. J. Berzelius
|More precise determination of the atomic mass ("Atomic weight table") compared to Dalton.|
|1832, Michael Faraday||Electrolysis experiments, introduction of the concept of ions.|
|Clarification of the term molecule (reference to Avogadro) and differentiation between atom and molecule: "The different amounts of the same element contained in the different molecules are all whole multiples of the same amount, which, since it always occurs as a whole, must be called an atom."|
|Dissociation in salt solutions: When table salt is dissolved in water, ions, i.e. charged atoms, are formed.|
|Discovery of radioactivity: Uranium ore (and uranium) emit radiation that blackens photographic plates.|
|around 1900, Wilhelm Ostwald, L. Boltzmann||Ostwald: There are no atoms, matter is a pure phenomenon of energy; Dispute with Ludwig Boltzmann and Max Planck, the representatives of one "Atomic Theory".|
|1908, Joseph John Thomson||Thomson's atomic model: The atom is filled with a positively charged cloud in which the electrons are distributed like raisins.|
|Rutherford's atomic model. The atom resembles a planetary system in which the negatively charged electrons orbit a positively charged nucleus, the protons.|
|Bohr's model of the atom: The electrons travel on certain paths at fixed intervals around the atomic nucleus. When emitting or absorbing radiation, the electrons of the hydrogen atom jump between these “shells”.|
|1913, Frederick Soddy||Theory of isotopes|
|Refinement of the Bohr model, elucidation of the fine structure of the spectral lines.|
|1916, G.N. Lewis||Covalent bond ("atomic bond", electron pair bond).|
|1920s, quantum physics around Schrödinger,|
|Task of the clear presentation of circling electrons, instead a mathematical scheme (matrix mechanics, wave mechanics). With Schrödinger “matter waves” instead of circling electrons. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle: two measurements of an electron such as position and momentum cannot be determined at the same time. |
Complementarity principle: light shows particles and Wave structure, it depends on the way you look at it.
Orbital model (shell model): Two electrons of an atom are always in a so-called orbital. This means the probable location of the two electrons.
|Discovery and proof of the neutron, whose existence was predicted by Rutherford as early as 1920.|
|Appearance of resonance in bonding electrons, hybrid orbital model, electronegativity, hydrogen bridge bonding.|
|1961, Murray Gell-Mann and Kazuhiko Nishijiama||Discovery of the quarks.|
Create a book individually: basic text atomic term
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