What is a state space tree

As humans, we cannot calculate as fast as a computer. In fact, there are many things that humans cannot do as fast as a computer, including numerical calculations. In order for a game to be considered “fair”, people should be given enough time to think. This would help them better hold their own against the computer. Today, it seems that machines outperformed humans, and the match in which Deep Blue defeated Kasparov created something of a story. In addition to calculation, intuition, instinct and experience are also important for humans. However, I don't think we should be disappointed with the fact that machines can beat grandmasters. The reason they are able to do this is because, in addition to the calculation, they are also provided with opening book data and various other data and strategies that grandmasters only learned through experience. This knowledge that is fed into the engine is knowledge that humans have acquired over hundreds of years. Ultimately, the credit for their success also goes to the people who have accumulated this wealth of knowledge over the years.

Mathematically, for example. If you take the starting position into account, there are 20 possible moves. According to 1) e4 .. e4 this increases the number of possible moves to 28. Mathematically speaking, the algorithms used by computers are of exponential complexity - which means that when you look at a number, e.g. B. 28, the average number of possible movements per person - so if a computer had to calculate to a depth of n, it would have to consider 28 ^ n possibilities. Such exponential complexity algorithms are among the most difficult algorithms for a computer to handle. To get an idea, 28 ^ 5 = 17 million (eight digits), 28 ^ 10 = a 15-digit number. In contrast, 8 ^ 5 = 32,000 and 8 ^ 10 = 1 billion (10 digits). If there are fewer pieces on the board, the computer has to calculate fewer moves. However, fewer pawns would mean more openness, which means more moves to be calculated. So if you want to beat the computer, you need to keep as many pieces on the board as possible (avoid swapping) - play a slow game with no swaps at the beginning where the computer has many moves to calculate after it gets out of the Opening book goes.