Which environmental factors influence the protein structure

One Health: An important concept in the fight against allergies

One Health - a comprehensive concept for all organic life

The One Health concept means a paradigm shift away from an isolated view and encompasses all organic life on our planet: humans, animals and plants, all of which are exposed to global threats. Climate change, pollution, industrial agriculture and food processing all have an impact on quality of life and public health. In the field of allergology, current research results show that numerous factors represent an increased risk of allergic diseases: climate change and global warming lead to plant migration, longer flowering times and increased allergenicity, and thus increase the risk of developing allergies and more intense symptoms in animals and people. The industrial processing of food changes its allergenicity by influencing the composition and protein structure. The pollution of water, soil and air also affects the allergenicity of proteins in the environment, plants and animals, as does the depletion of microbial diversity and nutrients in the soil, which could lead to a lack of binding partners and loading molecules for proteins in plants and to increase their allergenicity can. Many more of these factors could be intertwined and offer a broad field for future studies, according to first author Isabella Pali-Schöll.

As part of the One Health concept, the first steps within a working group (WG One Health) of the EAACI are to be taken soon.

Cow's milk allergen as a paradigm

In their article, which summarizes the current research situation, the comparative medicine research group at the Messerli Research Institute of the Vetmeduni Vienna shows how the One Health approach can be applied to allergies, using the example of the milk protein beta-lactoglobulin. “Life on farms with cows and the consumption of raw milk protects against allergies, and beta-lactoglobulin is involved because it is not only detectable in stable dust but also in the ambient air right up to the farmers' beds, and together with its binding molecules directs the immune system away from allergies ”, says Isabella Pali-Schöll from the inter-university Messerli Research Institute of the Vetmeduni Vienna, MeduniWien and UniWien.

Together with all stakeholders as an effective counter-strategy

According to Isabella Pali-Schöll, the systematic effects of the environment on humans, animals and plants are now to be investigated following the One Health concept. In this context the question arises, for example, which factors affect the loading of beta-lactoglobulin and thus the allergenicity of this protein in the milk and farm environment. The feed as well as stress, illnesses, living and growth conditions, the nutritional status of the animals but also general environmental conditions could influence the availability of ligands and the binding to BLG. According to Pali-Schöll, it would not only be important to research the causes more precisely: “In the course of further research into the mechanisms that lead to allergies or protect against them, the resulting findings should be systematically collected and strategically used for industry and politics To involve veterinarians, breeders and of course medical professionals in the discussion process. Ultimately, this should improve the keeping conditions and production processes in order to prevent allergies in humans and animals. ”In order to systematically tackle similar problems, the One Health topic was promoted within the European Academy for Allergology and Clinical Immunology and a working group was recently founded which deals exclusively with the OneHealth topic. Isabella Pali-Schöll is a co-initiator and already a board member and is therefore an “influencer” for international members from a wide range of specialist areas (https://www.eaaci.org/organisation/sections-a-igs/4760-wg-on-onehealth .html 2).

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(Web editor on May 19, 2021)

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