Why are tapered roller bearings used

The invention of the ball bearing: a long way to go for a well-rounded affair

Ball and roller bearings are an indispensable part of today's mechanical engineering. In retrospect, this is by no means trivial: It should be thousands of years before the designers of bygone times mastered the challenge of connecting rigid but moving components with one another with low friction.

Self-aligning ball bearings

Rolling bearings ensure concentricity

Once the wheel was invented, a problem arose with its application. The simple construction of a quick-release axle with a mounted wheel brought enormous advantages compared to carrying the loads. Nevertheless, the construction proved to be a weak point at the point where the pivot axis was connected to the frame of the car. The resulting high frictional forces cause heating and permanent wear, which sooner or later became noticeable through a break in the axle.

So an invention had to be found that reduced the frictional forces. Nearly three thousand year old finds of Celtic chariots indicate that this problem was thought about very early on. Small cylinders made of hardwood were used here to absorb the frictional forces, reduce wear and improve the rolling properties of the wheel.

Amazingly, however, the camp did not develop at all during the pre-industrial period. They contented themselves with well-lubricated plain bearings, which were improved by the available materials such as bronze or iron. Bearings supported by rolling pieces only reappeared with the advent of steam power.

Who invented the modern ball bearing?

The first patent for this bearing, issued in 1869, goes to the French Jules Suriray back who designed it for bicycles. A century earlier - in 1759 - a British watchmaker had invented a roller bearing for a chronometer.

At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, various inventors made decisive improvements in the manufacture and functionality of ball bearings.

What is a movable bearing made of?

Little has changed in the construction principle of the new warehouse since it was first built. They consist of an outer ring, the rolling pieces, a cage that holds them in position, and an inner ring. The idea behind the bearing with movable rolling segments is that the pressure forces that occur are distributed over as small an area as possible. In addition, the mobility of the individual components minimizes the frictional resistance. But here, too, new challenges arise: Distributing pressure loads over small areas always results in an increase in point loads on the individual segment. The construction of a warehouse therefore always requires the highest precision and the best materials.

Construction drawing of a tapered roller bearing

The family of roller bearing types

Over two hundred years of development have produced a wide range of rolling bearing types. A suitable bearing is available today for every technical application. Five different types have established themselves: roller, needle, cone, barrel and ball - this is the family of roller bearing types. It describes the design of the rolling segments.

Roller bearings or cylindrical roller bearings have cylindrically shaped segments. They are used to absorb high compressive forces. Needle roller bearings are also cylindrical, but they have a much smaller cross-section than rollers. Tapered roller bearings have conical shaped segments. They have the advantage that they can also absorb transverse forces. Barrel bearings represent the transition between the cylindrical rollers and the balls as bearing segments. Finally, ball bearings are particularly widespread for accommodating high speeds. Due to their very small, quasi punctiform receiving surface for pressure loads, these bearings are not designed for high pressure loads. There are single-row and double-row bearings with spherical segments, as well as deep groove ball bearings, self-aligning ball bearings or angular contact ball bearings.

Where are ball bearings installed?

These types of bearings are often found in gearboxes, engines and drive axles of vehicles. The pressure loads from the mechanical components are relatively low, so that they are not particularly significant. Depending on the direction of pressure, radial or axial bearings are used.

Where can you buy ball bearings?

In online shops like Kugellagerstore.de you can find a wide selection of the desired storage types at low prices.