Why do rice fields need stagnant water
Rice fields. How rice grows on Bali island. Balinese rice - magic dar from the gods
Rice terraces, which are in the Chinese province of Yunnan, admire travelers from all over the world. These huge rice fields are one of the largest and most beautiful in the world. Many sights attract tourists from different countries.
Fantastic scenery in Yuanan
It seems so amazing in rice fields. These terraces are special. They are so picturesque which annually soaks in the bright, luscious colors that cover the hills of hills that hundreds of tourists come in.
During the year the landscape changes: some colors are replaced by others. It seems that the invisible artist paints the fields filled with water in the most incredible colors. Rice shoots in summer have a soft green color. Autumn days on the slopes are a visible place of "gold".
The fields are at their most beautiful from November to the end of March. Sun glare, reflected on the surface, creates a fantastic, beautiful landscape.
If you look up the slopes of the mountains and hills from a bird's eye view, you will not immediately understand that it is below. Multi-colored patchworks separated by black lines. What's this? Mystery.
Wonders of nature that travelers see in china, amazing imagination. Shilin Stone Forest, Lake Crescent in the middle of the desert, mountains from the movie "Avatar" and dozens of other picturesque places that compel the Chinese to be proud of their amazing land.
Rice terraces are also revered by residents of the Nahkammer. They reach 17 in the ranking of the most beautiful places in China. UNESCO is currently considering the request to include these unusual rice fields in the list of valuable cultural objects.
but that's how they see the farmers every day
How do the amazing terraces appear?
About 2500 years ago, the nomadic Hani tribes came from the mountains to bother each other in a new place. Farmers noticed that the soil on which they were grown, rice grown, became much more fertile if the sprouts constantly covered the layer of water. Weeds were destroyed, of course, and plants were given additional fertilizer - nitrogen.
Farmers decided to equip huge recesses on the slopes of the hills of hills. The titanic work was completed after many years. Work requires accurate calculation and accuracy. The slightest cropper led to the destruction of fragile designs.
Man reached his own. Huge terraces of 20 thousand square meters. The kilometers stretched along the hills and mountain slopes, repeating their contours. Figure can be grown without having to change locations, millennia. The terraces, which are already thousands of years old, are still used by farmers and give a good harvest.
Ecologists are sounding the alarm. It turns out that rice growth is accompanied by millions of tons of methane gas into the atmosphere. This is definitely negative for the environment, but mankind cannot refuse rice production.
This grain culture is one of the main sources of calories for 45% of the population of our planet. The largest rice producers are China, India, Thailand.
People started cultivating this ZLAK 8,000 years ago. During this time, more than 100 of its varieties are derived, some of which mature in just 3 months.
In most counties, cultivation of this important crop remains as it was in our time. It is quite difficult to mechanize this process so manual labor is still used in rice fields.
More than a billion farmers are involved in the cultivation of this grain. We offer you to see the photo of rice terraces located right on the slopes of the hills.
How much work it took farmers to create fields like this! But some of these terraces were created over centuries. E.g. Spent 500 years for its construction.
As you can see in the photo, monthly planting green sprouts in a flooded water. In such conditions, this valuable class gives more harvest than in dry soil. In addition, water protects the soil from weeds and some pests.
After about a month and a half, this plant will begin to bloom. It looks very nice from the side. In addition, inflorescences can be both black and purple - each variety is a different color.
After 90-200 days, the farmers begin to harvest. Again without the use of any technique. And in some regions, plow the fields immediately and plant new sprouts again! Therefore, it turns out that it collects 2 crops per year. In some places the norm is 3 harvest.
What is the most interesting, rice is an unpretentious culture. For example, in China it has been grown in the same fields for several millennia. The yield does not suffer.
Although such a "trick" will not happen with our wheat. After a few years, the field should "relax" for several years.
Where the terrain allows this "white wheat" on the plains. But provided that they are perfectly smooth - with no slopes. Otherwise it will be impossible to evenly pour them with water.
In the countries of Asia, the stalks also go next to the grain itself. From them make roofs of apartments, famous straw cones and rice paper.
Do you know that more than 350 million tons of rice are used on earth every year?
Rice is the most widely consumed agricultural crop in the world, but few of us believe in what conditions, by whom and where it was grown. In this material we would like to say from where the "main bread of the world" appears on the counter of the shops.
Rice on the territory of Asia grew about eight thousand years ago. Oddly enough, the natural habitat of this culture is not the flooded field at all - it can grow in dry places. However, it has been found that water rice yields around 20 times more harvest than ordinary soil. Presumably, the discovery was made according to a different version by the Chinese, the owners of this method of growing rice were Indonesians. Water avoids fluctuations in temperature, and flooded fields do not need fertilizers. Hence, rice is one of those crops that can be grown in one place in one place for millennia without making fertilizers. To increase yields on flooded fields, fish or ducks are sometimes grown, as their relief can fill the lack of nitrogen in the soil.
The most famous and picturesque rice terraces in China are located on the territory of Longji Village, which is located in the southeast part of lunch. Here they spread on the slopes of the hills what local landscapes involuntarily landscaped landscaped. The graded structure of the slopes is necessary so that the water uniformly covers the soil areas with the sowing.
Interestingly, the soil, as a rule, does not plow with the help of tractors, and from bulls - despite the significant increase in the standard of living in the country, the agricultural machinery is absent in the Chinese fields, and the soil treatment must produce them in this archaic way.
The Chinese grow in a special way: they do not scatter the grains on flooded fields, and first of all give sponsors to climb in a special greenhouse, to plant in a mixed homogeneous dirt. This is done in order to take the cheapest and heaviest plants in the beginning. When greenhouse sprouts are pulled up to about 10 centimeters, they are thrown into water (they are not planted, namely they are thrown) - they can themselves be rooted in the ground.
The decline in the level of the major Chinese rivers Juanhe and Yangtze and their pollution are linked not only to factory production but also to agriculture. To grow a kilogram of rice, it has to spend about four tons of water, which is taken from the canals used in the fields.
A few centuries ago, rice ripened for 250 days. It turns out a little over eight months - this is a big period. Created in the laboratories of the now grown varieties, ripen in 90 days. A beautiful morning, after about two months after landing, rice subsidence that reached half a height suddenly bloom. The smell of flowering rice is very pleasant - resembles cooked rice, only sweeter and spicy. At this moment, grains begin to harden and then harden.
The ripe rice is harvested and dried and spread on the streets. The rice moisture should not exceed 15%, otherwise covered with mold. In the warehouses for keeping this culture, it is necessary to adhere to the ideal regulations of humidity, since the rice can be kept in a warehouse for about a year, and the package-packed product has not deteriorated for three years.
The predominance of rice in the world food is not related to fashion, and not to the fact that this is the traditional food itself in abundance on the nation's planet. Rice is an impeccable product from which you can make many dishes, alcoholic drinks, sweets, it can be stored for many years, it does not require special soil processing and has a great yield. As the population of the planet grows, despite the development of genetic engineering, rice will most likely strengthen the position of the most consumed product on earth.
That's the way interesting ...
According to the preliminary results, the export of the Russian RISE is 2012 reached the historically maximum value - 334 thousand tons, which is twice as high in 2011, reports the Institute for Agricultural Market Behavior (ICAR).
Abroad, almost equal quantities of rice-grain and raw rice are delivered. "Our rice is becoming more and more popular in foreign markets due to its high quality and low price level," says Ikar. Libya acquired the largest volumes of Russian rice. Turkey, which in 2009-2011 held the leading place in the list of buyers, was moving The majority of both countries' procurement is paddy rice. "Traditionally, Rice-Cropa was mainly imported from the former USSR," explains Icar. At the same time, Egypt, which has been producing and exporting RICE for the first time in recent years, has RICE, bought almost 17,000 tons of rice grain in Russia (PRUF)
So anyway until everything s / x?
I thought here ... On the template world view I know how I grow rice in China (well or in these places), something like this:
And what about Russia? Something I haven't seen these fields! ABOVE! So there is a subject to dig on the internet ... I climbed ...
A person grows rice and uses it in food for over seven thousand years. This is evident from the ancient manuscripts of India and China, ancient rice fields with a system of canals for irrigation, the remains of clayware with rice paths. The place of origin of rice is definitely not established, however, according to some scientists, the culture emerged in India, as evidenced by the growth of intermediate forms between wild and cultural rice. One of the oldest rice culture focuses is China, where it was grown in the 5th millennium in our era. Around 500 BC The rice fields were divided into a substantial part of India, China, South and Southeast Asia.
When rice is easily adapted to more rigid weather conditions: In South Asia, rice called for plenty of water and warm all year round, and in central China, Korea and Japan took place in central China and Japan, which made the night cold and a small amount of water.
In Asia, rice is still manually planted and harvested. Its centuries are cultivated on small blocks of earth on the slopes of hills and mountain plateau.
In the 13th century, the fields of Sicily and Valencia were sown in southern Europe. Most of the rice ingested on the territory of Italy and Spain was round and medium. It gave a good harvest, does not require much water for irrigation. RICE later became popular in northern and central Europe, where it was exported from American and Asian colonies.
In North America he came up with the British, French and Japanese. On the North American continent on the Pacific coast, which grows by Japanese emigrants brought in by Japanese emigrants, the round rice places that grow on the Atlantic coast and grow south of the United States. However, before the appearance of the colonists, North America's Indians were gathered and wild rice was used, as a result of which they grow in the great lakes area. This long-term grass is a distant relative of rice - given grains that are distinguished by their exceptional color and taste, as well as the usual rice-superior properties.
In South America, rice was brought by the Spaniards and Portuguese. Brazil and Argentina became the largest rice producers.
In 1893, on the initiative of the Samarkand military governor of Count N. E. Rostovtsev in China, 14 pounds of seeds of "sukhodolny" rice (so-called rice, cultivated without flooding a layer of water) was purchased. It was not grown on permanent bay, but with periodic water inflows in checks. Boden almost died at the same time. From sowing collected 158 pounds and 36 pounds of grain. The entire crop was purchased from a credit teller. Bought another 800 pounds of seeds in China. They were freely distributed to the population for sowing. By 1895, 30,000 pounds of grain had already been collected.
For some reason, for some reason, they decided, for some reason, that fields in Swamp State were dangerous due to the spread of malaria. For this reason, sowed rice has been banned in general, including in Armenia and Georgia. Over time, however, this ban was removed.
In the European part of Russia, the first attempts at drawing were made on the initiative of the king by Ivan the Terrible. He gave the Astrakhan governor recipe to grow "Saracensky Millet" as they called rice in the last days of the Volga. However, what ended this company is not known.
The attempt to sow Peter's rice first was successful. The seeds from Arabia, specially sent to traders, were sown in the Royal Botanical Gardens near Astrakhan and in the Terek River Delta on the lands of the Armenian immigrants. In both places the rice came on and continued to be grown.
Rice terraces in china
Rice fields are of three types: checks, sudidal, and liman. In checks, rice is grown with constant floods until the crop is almost mature, and the water is ancestral before purification. In this way about 90% of the world's rice products are obtained. Dry rice is grown without artificial irrigation in areas with abundant rainfall. In the case of the checks and the same varieties, the same varieties can be bred, but in the first case the harvest is usually higher. The prized rice is grown in the floods of the rivers during floods. At the same time, special varieties with a quickly elongated trunk are used, and the panicles float above the surface of the water. This method of growing rice is only possible in small areas of land each year, and it gives the grain much less than a check, but it is an extremely important source of food for the people of river valleys in Asia.
The main media factors limiting the disadvantage are the temperature and humidity of the soil. Rice is a thermally loving plant, but too high temperatures lead to its excessive vegetative growth and the mutual shading of shoots in the cereals. The abundance of sunny days, favorable photosynthesis, usually helps to get a higher harvest.
Rice is an electrical hydrophite that is able to carry oxygen from leaves to flooded roots to reduce weed competition and preserve the increase in yields in the fields throughout the growing season.
In rice areas with hilly relief, the rice is grown on the terraces, fenced with trees kept on Dustywood water. In the plains, as a rule, the irrigation rice fields are thoroughly (planned) aligned to ensure uniform irrigation and good drainage, and divided representations (tests) flooded with water by the system of canals.
The rice is attached to the ground, but for its cultivation, dusty and clay soils are preferably good water. However, sandy soils in spite of low natural fertility with adequate treatment often give the highest yields.
In the US, rice sow from March to June. Singing methods vary - seeds, either in the ground with machines, or spread (sometimes from an airplane) along a dry or flooded surface of the field.In countries where agriculture is not mechanized, the rice seeds first germinate on the ridges, and then from 30-50 days shoots the nests of three or four copies into a soft soil coated with a small layer of water.
When sowing dry soil, it is immediately flooded, and then periodically changes the depth of the flood, depending on the stage of plant development, as well as on the fight against weeds and pests. With the appearance of the wax maturity phase, the water is reset and dried with the floor for cleaning. When harvested, the moisture content of grain should be an average of 18-22%, and not less than 16%, otherwise it can crack.
How do I blow rice in Russia now? .
That's how it is done
Probably this reminded of many "in the Leninsky district who fell into the corner of the motherland ... What has the five-year plan done for three years?
In Russia, rice is grown in the Saratov Territory, in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, although I was told that the rice fields in Primorsky were seen. There are successful varieties of rice, they don't need flooding. The yield by definition is lower than the ordinary, but growing areas are much wider.
The man began to grow 7-8,000 years ago.
Around 500 million tons of rice are produced on earth every year.
To grow a kilogram of rice, it is necessary to spend 5000 liters of water.
In North America, rice fields are sown with airplanes, and in some areas of Asia, each grain is planted manually.
Most commonly, you'll find brown long grain rice. Brown round or Mediterranean rice is less popular.
Compared to other grains, rice contains more potassium and phosphorus.
Rice is a source of complex carbohydrates that are necessary for a balanced diet.
The average resident of Asia eats rice at least twice a day.
The main ingredient in classic English pudding is rice.
Rice is made up of eight major amino acids.
Most of the vitamins and minerals are contained in the filling casing, which only remains on brown rice grains.
Rica is the only large granola that grows in water.
Rice is perfectly combined with fish and meat dishes.
The name of the Japanese car "Honda" means the "main rice field".
The grains of stationary rice retain most of the vitamins and minerals.
The name of the Japanese car "Toyota" means "fertile rice field".
These amazing photos look like precious stained glass or mosaic if you don't know what it really is. Rice fields - amazing beauty creation of human hands. Such fields can be seen in the Philippines, Bali and of course in China. Perhaps it is precisely the cultivation of rice - the profession is extremely laborious and meticulous - one of the main factors that form the character of the Chinese, about the care and patience, the legends of which are created.
Rice terraces in China are an entire work of art, and for a fee to tourists, life in the rice fields is admired.
From ancient times, all operations were done manually. Rice is not a plant that lives naturally in water, but the people of Asia (most likely in China, but some state that it was in Indonesia) found that the rice in the field that is filled with water is a Harvest 20 times larger than in a dry field - how grain or other crops are grown.
Rice cultivation in China is engaged in ancient times. Excavations carried out in Hamuda Village, Zhejiang Province suggest that the rice was in the area up to 8,000 years ago.
Rice cultures in China are small cell cells that are filled with water and separated by a network of narrow rolls of earth. The surface of such a place should be perfectly smooth and strictly horizontal, so that it is so small.
Of course, it is easier to grow rice on the plains, but under such locations fit and the slopes of the mountains and create artificial terraces on them. First, the rice is printed in special nurseries, and about a month later, young plants are transplanted in the field. With ancient times and until recently, this tough mechanization process is done manually.
The process of growing rice in a flooded field begins with its processing. The farmer takes the bulls to the plow and plows the earth. Despite the fact that in China and other East Asian countries the standard of living is rising and they are passing the process of "westernization", there are still no cars in the fields. Most often you can find a farmer, irrigated soil with a wooden plow with hardened cattle. The area of flooding the field involves mixing the grist with water and in homogeneous dirt.
When the earth is stirred, grains of rice are planted in special "greenhouses". Landing directly on the field does not give good results because grains are hardly germinated in a flooded field. Soft seedlings are collected when they reach a height of about 10 cm. Then you make rhombus rice trunks and go with the flooding of the landing with them. You do not need to put your hands in the ground, just throw it into the water, and they will take root on their own.
In a flooded field, the water isolates rice shoots from heat and cold and creates a one-part and balanced ecological system that shows itself to everything. Flooded rice field does not need artificial fertilizers. It can maintain a permanent level of natural fertilizers for a long time, if it is a little "help": burn the remains of sprouts in a dry field (at the end of the harvest season) and mix them with the soil; disperse the allocation of animals or residues; Show fish or ducks in a flooded field - your choice offers a nitrogen field.
Rice ripens for a period of 140 to 210 days. Modern varieties developed in the laboratory can mature in 90 days. About two months later, the rice begins to bloom - when the sprouts reach a height of 50 to 60 cm. Rice inflorescences consist of 70 small flowers that suddenly disappeared early in the morning. The smell of the rice field is similar to the smell of the finished rice at home - sweet and very gentle. After flowering, the rice grain begins to develop and solidify.
In the photo, rice fields look lush and colorful: bright green sprouts are buried in water, which reflects the blue and endless sky. After a while the fields turn into a thick green wall.
And only for the third month, when rice terraces acquire a golden hue, does the harvest occur.
Rice fields from above seem multicolored. Different varieties of rice are used as "paint". For example, the grains of the common yellow rice look slightly green from a distance, and the brown is practically black. For a centuries-old history of rice cultivation in China, no more than 10 thousand of its varieties have been bred - different types, color, taste sizes, spikelets, grain exit, maturity, maturation times and many other indicators. Six varieties are considered elite.
The choice of early and late varieties makes it possible to collect two crops a year in many parts of China, and on Layzhou Peninsula and Hainan Province - even 3 returns. For this purpose, lateced varieties are also planted between rows of early rice before ripening or cultivated on the site of the already cleaned early rice. About the powerful "green energy" of rice fields speaks in the old Chinese proverb - "In a day there is a gold, black and green" (in the morning the farmer removes the gold RICE, a black field is plowed among new crops, and in the evening there are already green seedlings).
From the rice field brought in by an unwanted rice, also known as "paddi". It is further dried and separated from grains of rice palm and weeds. One of the most interesting paintings in China even in our day is carpets with rice lying on the streets or near houses.
In the first processing stage, a rice hull is removed to protect the grains from damage. In the sale after that comes the brown rice. It consists of massive grains of rice, it remains a nutrient cutting bowl that gives it a characteristic brownish tint and nut flax.
In the next stage of rice processing, a filling casing is removed during the milling process. Rice loses most of its nutrients. The rice that has passed all the milling stages is called white because only white smooth rice grain remains, which contains a significant amount of starch. According to the content of vitamins and minerals, white rice loses brown or pubolic rice, however, it is the main type of rice that is consumed all over the world.
There is a rice processing technology - steam processing. The ordinary rice is soaked in water and then treated with a hot steam under pressure. Then the grains are dried and ground as an ordinary figure. After processing the grain of the stolen rice, you acquire amber-yellow shadows and become translucent. When processing a ferry, up to 80% of the vitamins and minerals contained in the fuel shell are in rice grain.
Every kilogram of rice you buy in the supermarket irrigates an average of 4,000 liters of water. The Chinese have learned with great art to adjust the river flow to water their rice fields, sometimes with the help of canals that bring water straight to the fields, right to the fields. Water on them is in constant motion and is not stuffed. Water that takes too much time will heat up and damage the seedlings early in their growth. In addition, standing water can attract mosquitoes and cause disease. Rice has a wonderful estate - it can be grown in the same field in the same field for one year after year without a break for even 2,000 years (unlike other agricultural limitations, when the field grows, it should relax. The reason is that in deep water where rice grows, a rig that absorbs nitrogen and thus ensures rice through natural fertilizer.
Fresh rice, just collected from the field, can be stored for about a year. Then it starts yellow to yellow. Rice sold in stores can easily store for three years before a pack is opened.
Figurine in China is used for a variety of purposes except that it is the main food product, including making a variety of cakes, candies, alcoholic beverages, rice processes, etc. The therapeutic properties of rice are well known. Chinese doctors believe that rice "saves the stomach, strengthens health, and expels disease from the body." The Chinese not only use grains of rice, but also a straw. It goes on the roof, on making broad-grain hats from the sun. Rice straw, shoes, baskets and mats, umbrellas and fans, durable thin paper, and rice bowl are used in packaging porcelain products.
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